Explaining the legislative Branch in Guatemala

It is important to understand how the legislative branch works, since it is the one that determines the laws and regulations that apply and affect all businesses.

In Guatemala, like many other democratic nations, the government is divided into three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. From these three, it is important to understand how the legislative branch works, since it is the one that determines the laws and regulations that apply and affect all businesses.

The legislative branch in Guatemala is responsible for creating, amending, and repealing laws. The Congress of the Republic is a unicameral institution integrated by 160 congressmen and it serves as a check on the executive branch’s powers.

Congressmen are elected every four years through a proportional representation system, which has the effect of creating different party groups among it. Normally, more than 15 parties get to have representation in Congress. This creates a very complex dynamic and makes alliances between parties very important.

The legislative branch is tasked with a range of crucial functions. Firstly, it drafts, debates, and votes on bills. To effectively handle the bills introduced, the Congress of the Republic forms specialized committees. These committees focus on specific areas such as finance, human rights, justice, and education, allowing for examination of related issues. The committee system plays a crucial role in the legislative process, as bills are reviewed and amended before they proceed to the plenary for voting.

Furthermore, it has the power to oversee the executive branch by questioning the Ministries of State and public workers and approving the General Budget of the State, among other faculties. It also is responsible for appointing the Supreme Court Justices and other State representatives.

The legislative branch in Guatemala faces a fair share of challenges. These include the need to enhance transparency, combat corruption, and strengthen institutional capacity. It plays a vital role in shaping the nation’s laws and policies.

In this context it should reflect the collective voice of the Guatemalan people, although it is not completely so. Understanding the functions, powers, and processes of the legislative branch is essential for citizens and businesses to engage in the democratic process, contribute to the development of their country and be aware of the laws that are being promoted that can affect or enhance their rights and activities.

Share post

More posts:

El lunes 10 de noviembre, Martín Vizcarra, el ahora ex-presidente de Perú, fue removido de su puesto. El Congreso de Perú aprobó con 105 votos a favor, 19 en contra y 4 abstenciones, una moción tenía como objetivo declarar la permanente incapacidad moral del Presidente. La declaratoria de incapacidad del Presidente por parte del poder legislativo no es un mecanismo único de la República de Perú. también está regulado en El Salvador, Ecuador y Venezuela. En Guatemala, el procedimiento más análogo a los mencionados anteriormente se encuentra previsto en el artículo 165 de la Constitución, en el cual enuncia que es atribución del Congreso de la República “i) Declarar, con el voto de las dos terceras partes del número total de diputados del Congreso, la incapacidad física o mental del Presidente de la República para el ejercicio del cargo.
En Guatemala el Congreso de la República el 31 de julio prorrogó por treinta días más el plazo de vigencia del Estado de Calamidad por la pandemia de COVID-19. Actualmente, el Congreso se encuentra en su periodo extraordinario de sesiones e iniciará su segundo periodo de sesiones ordinarias el 1 de agosto de 2020, por lo que actualmente no ha habido mayor movimiento en el Congreso de la República. Por otra parte, los enfrentamientos entre la Corte de Constitucionalidad y la Corte Suprema de Justicia continuaron, ya que el 26 de julio la Corte de Constitucionalidad dictó sentencia amparando a los magistrados de la misma corte y reiteraron la improcedencia de antejuicio en contra de ciertos magistrados de la Corte de Constitucionalidad, posteriormente el 31 de julio la Corte Suprema de Justicia, a través de un comunicado manifestó que no acataría la sentencia de la Corte de Constitucionalidad.